Ser vs Estar  

Spanish Grammar Present Indicative Ser vs Estar
Overview

The verb ser (conjugation) means "to be". It is completely irregular in the present tense.

yo soy I am
eres you are
Ud./él/ella es you/he/she is
nosotros/as somos we are
vosotros/as sois you guys are
Uds./ellos/ellas son you all/they are

Ser is used to signify equivalence or identity between two elements:

Mi esposa es doctora. - My wife is a doctor.

Ser is used to indicate an inherent characteristic or quality:

El niño es guapo. - The boy is handsome.

Ser is used to indicate origin:
Yo soy de Colombia. - I'm from Colombia.

Ser is used to express ownership or possession:
Ese carro, el cual está muy sucio, es de Enrique.
That car, that is very dirty, is Enrique's.

Ser is used to express the time of day:
Son las doce. - It's twelve o'clock.

Ser is used to talk about dates
Es el primero de enero. - It is the first of January.

The verb estar (conjugation) means "to be". It is irregular in the present tense.

yo estoy (I am)
estás (you are)
Ud./él/ella> está (you/he/she is)
nosotros (as) estamos (we are)
vosotros (as) estáis (you guys are)
Uds./ellos/ellas están (you all/they are)

Estar is used to signify the location of an object:
El perro está al lado del gato.
The dog is next to the cat.

Estar + past participle is used to indicate a resultant condition:
Estoy cansado.
I am tired.

Estar is used to express a changeable state or condition:
María está enferma.
María is sick.


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